Chemistry Syllabus NEET-2021

NEET-2021

CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS

NATIONAL ELIGIBILITY CUM ENTRANCE TEST (NEET) Is A Single Level Exam. Which Is Conducted All Over The Nation By The NATIONAL TESTING AGENCY (NTA) For The Students, Who Are Aspiring To Pursue A Degree In MBBS/BDS/BAMS/BSMS/BUMS/BHMS And Other Undergraduate Medical Courses In Approved/Recognized Medical/Dental /AYUSH And Other Colleges/ Deemed Universities /Institutes (AIIMS & JIPMER) In India. Knowledge Of The Syllabus Will Immensely Help Students To Prepare For Exams.

CLASS-11

Lessons to be covered:

  • Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
  • Structure of Atom
  • Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
  • Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
  • States of Matter: Gases and Liquids
  • Thermodynamics
  • Equilibrium
  • Redox Reactions
  • Hydrogen
  • s-Block Element (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals)
  • Some p-Block Elements
  • Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Environmental Chemistry

 

 

LESSONS AND  TOPICS

 

 

 

Unit 1 – Some basic concepts of Chemistry

General Introduction – Importance and Scope of chemistry

Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: the concept of elements, atoms and molecules

Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry

 

 

Unit 2 – Structure of Atom

Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum  numbers, shapes of s,p, and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals – Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals
 

Unit 3 – Classification of elements and periodicity in

Properties

Modern periodic law and long term form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements – atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, election gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence
 

Unit 4 – Chemical Bonding and molecular structure

Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond
 

 

 

Unit 5 – States of matter – Gases and Liquids

Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas of elucidating the concept of molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s Law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds(elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature

Liquid state – Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations)

 

 

 

 

Unit 6 – Thermodynamics

First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of: bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution

Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity.

Third law of thermodynamics – Brief introduction

 

 

 

Unit 7 – Equllibrium

Equilibrium in Physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium Le Chatelier’s principle, ionic equilibrium – ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of pH., Hydrolysis of salts(elementary idea), buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples)
 

Unit 8 – Redox reactions

Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers
 

Unit 9 – Hydrogen

Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen, hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure
 

 

 

Unit 10 – s-Block elements(Alkali and alkaline earth metals)

Group 1 and group 2 elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens, uses

Preparation and properties of some important compounds

Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogen carbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium

Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit 11 – Some

p-block elements

General introduction to p-Block elements

Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group, Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies

General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation of states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides

Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses

 

 

 

Unit 12 – Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques

 

General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis

Classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds

Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation

Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit 13 – Hydrocarbons

Alkanes – Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis

Alkenes – Nomenclature, structure of double bond(ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition

Alkynes – Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of – hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water

Aromatic hydrocarbons – introduction, IUPAC nomenclature, Benzene; resonance, aromaticity, chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution – Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation, directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity

 

Unit 14 – Environmental Chemistry

Environmental pollution – Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, green house effect and global warming- pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution

 

CLASS-12

LESSONS TO BE COVERED:

  • Solid State
  • Solutions
  • Electrochemistry
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Surface Chemistry
  • General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
  • p- Block Elements
  • d and f Block Elements
  • Coordination Compounds
  • Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
  • Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
  • Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
  • Biomolecules
  • Polymers
  • Chemistry in Everyday Life
 

LESSONS AND TOPICS

 

 

Unit 1 – Solid state

Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three-dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators
 

 

Unit 2 – Solutions

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, the solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor
 

 

Unit 3 – Electrochemistry

Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry-cell-electrolytic cells and galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion
 

 

Unit 4 – Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a reaction(average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life(only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory(elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation
 

 

Unit 5 – Surface Chemistry

Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions – types of emulsions
Unit 6 – General principles and processes of isolation of elements Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic methods and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron
 

 

 

Unit 7 – p-Block elements

Group 15 elements – general introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen(Structure only); Phosphorous-allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorus: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only)

 

Group 16 elements – General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides, ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms, compounds of sulphur: preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only)

 

Group 17 elements – General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structure only)

 

Group 18 elements – General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses

 

 

 

 

 

Unit 8 – d and f Block elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4

 

Lanthanoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences

 

Actinoids – electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids

Unit 9 – Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds(in qualitative analysis, biological systems).
 

 

 

 

Unit 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation

 

Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only)

 

Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, tri chloromethane, tetra chloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols – Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol

 

Phenol – Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols

 

Ethers – Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses.

 

 

Unit 12 – Aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids

Aldehydes and Ketones – Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.

 

Carboxylic acids: nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses

 

 

Unit 13 – Organic compounds containing Nitrogen

Amines – nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines

 

Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places

 

Diazonium salts – preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unit 14 – Biomolecules

Carbohydrates – classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (Starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance

 

Proteins – elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.

 

Hormones – Elementary idea (excluding structure)

 

Vitamins – classification and function

 

Nucleic acids – DNA and RNA

 

 

Unit 15 – Polymers

Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, Bakelite; rubber, biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers
 

 

Unit 16 – Chemistry in Everyday life

Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants

Cleansing agents – soaps and detergents, cleansing action