REDUCED TAMILNADU STATE BOARD CLASS10 SCIENCE SYLLABUS 2021-2022

TAMILNADU STATE BOARD

CLASS – X

SCIENCE SYLLABUS

2021-2022



Unit Content
1. Laws of Motion
  • Introduction
  • Force and Motion
  • Inertia
  • Types of Inertia
  • Examples of Inertia
  • Linear Momentum
  • Newton’s Laws of Motion
  • Newton’s First Law
  • Force
  • Types of forces
  • Resultant Force
  • Newton’s Second Law of Motion
  • Newton’s Third Law of Motion
  • Rocket propulsion
  • Gravitation
  • Newton’s Universal law of gravitation
  • Mass and Weight
 

  2. Optics

  • Introduction
  • Properties of light
  • Refraction of Light
  • First Law of Refraction
  • Second Law of Refraction
  • Refraction of composite Light – Dispersion of Light
  • Lenses
  • Other Types of Lenses
  • Images formed due to refraction through a convex and concave lens
  • Refraction through a convex lens
  • Applications of a Convex lens
  • Refraction through a concave lens
  • Applications of concave lenses
  • Lens Formula
  • Sign   Convention
  • Human eye
  • Defects in eye



 3. Thermal Physics
  • Introduction
  • Temperature
  • Absolute scale (Kelvin scale) of temperature
  • Thermal equilibrium
  • Thermal Energy
  • Characteristic features of heat energy transfer
  • Other units of Heat energy
  • Fundamental laws of gases
  • Boyle’s law
  • Charles’ law
  • Avogadro’s law
  • Gases
  • Real gases
  • Ideal gases
   4. Electricity
  • Introduction
  • Electric Current
  • Definition of Electric Current
  • SI unit of Electric current
  • Electric circuit
  • Electrical components
  • Electric potential and Potential difference
  • Electric Potential
  • Electric Potential Difference
  • Volt
  • Ohm’s law
  • Resistance of a material
  • Unit of Resistance
  • Electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity
  • Electrical resistivity
  • Conductance and Conductivity
  • Heating effect of current
  • Joule’s Law of Heating
  • Electric power
  • Unit of electric power
  • Consumption of electrical energy



 

 

 5. Acoustics
  • Introduction
  • Sound waves
  • Longitudinal Waves
  • Categories of Sound waves based on their frequencies
  • Difference between the sound and light waves
  • Reflection of sound
  • Laws of reflection
  • Reflection at the boundary of a denser medium
  • Reflection at the boundary of a rarer medium
  • Reflection of sound in plane and curved surfaces
  • Echoes
  • Conditions necessary for hearing echo
  • Applications of echo
6. Nuclear  Physics
  • Introduction
  • Radioactivity
  • Discovery of radioactivity
  • Definition of radioactivity
  • Natural Radioactivity
  • Artificial Radioactivity (or) Induced Radioactivity
  • Units of Radioactivity
  • Alpha, beta and gamma rays
  • Properties of Alpha, Beta and Gamma rays
  • Radioactive displacement law
  • Alpha decay
  • Beta decay
  • Gamma decay
  • Uses of Radioactivity
  • Agriculture
  • MedicineIndustries
  • Archaeological Research
  • Safety measures
  • Permitted range
  • Preventive Measures



 7. Atoms and Molecules
  • Introduction
  • Atom and Atomic mass

7.1.1    Relative Atomic mass (REM)

7.2         Molecule and molecular mass

7.2.1    Classification of molecules

7.3    Difference between atoms and molecules

7.6    Avogadro hypothesis

7.7.   Applications of Avogadro’s Law

7.9   Solved problems (Problems related to the above mentioned topics only)

Introduction
8.1    Modern periodic law
8.2    Modern periodic table
8.2.1 Features of periods
8.2.2 Features of groups
8.6.     Properties of metals
8. Periodic Classification of Elements 8.6.1      Physical properties

8.6.2      Chemical properties

8.10     Alloys
8.10.1 Amalgam
8.10.2 Method of making alloys
8.10.3 Types of alloys
8.11    Corrosion
8.11.2 Methods of preventing corrosion
 

 

 

 

 

 

9. Solutions

 

 

 

Introduction

9.2       Components of solutions

9.3       Types of solutions

9.3.1  Based on the physical state of the solute and the solvent

9.3.2  Based on the type of solvent

9.3.3  Based on the amount of solute

9.3.4  Concentrated and dilute Solutions

9.6    Hydrated salts and water of crystallization

 



 10. Types of Chemical Reactions
  • Introduction
  • Types of Chemical reactions
  • Classification based on the nature of rearrangements of atoms
  • Classification based on the direction of reaction
  • Ionic product of water
  • pH scale
  • pH calculations
  • Problems
  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11. Carbon and its Compounds

 

 

 

Introduction

11.1       General characteristics of organic compounds

11.2       Classification of organic compounds based on the pattern of carbon chain

11.3       Classes of organic compounds (Based on the kind of atoms

11.3.1  Hydrocarbons

11.3.2  Characteristics of hydrocarbons

11.3.3  Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups

11.4       Homologous series

11.4.1  Characteristics of homologous series

11.5       Nomenclature of organic compounds

11.5.1  Why do we need nomenclature?

11.5.2  Components of an IUPAC name

11.5.3  IUPAC rules for naming organic compounds

11.5.4  IUPAC nomenclature of hydrocarbons – Solved Examples

11.5.5  IUPAC nomenclature of other classes – Solved Examples

11.6       Ethanol

11.6.1  Manufacture of ethanol

11.6.2  Physical properties

11.6.3  Chemical properties

11.6.4  Uses of ethanol

11.8    Organic compounds in daily life

12. Plant Anatomy and Plant Physiology Introduction

12.1      Tissues

12.2      Tissue system

12.2.1  Dermal or Epidermal tissue system

12.2.2    Ground tissue system

12.2.3    Vascular tissue system

12.3   Internal structure of dicot root (Bean)

12.5   Internal structure of dicot Stem (Sunflower)

12.7   Internal structure of dicot or dorsi-ventral leaf (Mango)

12.9       Plant Physiology

12.9.1  Plastids

12.9.2  Structure of chloroplast

12.9.3  Functions of chloroplast

12.9.4  Photosynthesis

12.9.5  Where does photosynthesis occur?

12.9.6  Photosynthetic pigments

12.9.7  Role of sunlight in photosynthesis

12.9.8    Factors affecting photosynthesis

12.11       Types of respiration

12.11.1  Aerobic respiration (Except Stages)

12.11.2  Anaerobic respiration

12.11.3  Respiratory quotient

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

14. Transportation in Plants and Circulation in Animals

 

 

 

Introduction

14.1         Means of Transport in Plants

14.1.1    Diffusion

14.1.2    Active Transport

14.1.3    Osmosis

14.2         Root hair – water absorbing unit

14.3         Pathway of water absorbed by roots

14.4       Types of movement of water into the root cells

14.4.1  Apoplast Pathway

14.4.2  Symplast Pathway

14.5       Transpiration

14.5.1  Factors affecting transpiration,

14.6       Root pressure

14.7       Uptake of minerals

14.8       Translocation of Mineral Ions

14.9       Phloem Transport

14.10    Translocation of sugars

14.12 Blood

14.15 Structure of Human heart

14.15.2 Heart Beat

14.17 Blood Groups



Introduction
16.1    Plant Hormones
16.1.1 Auxins (Except Went’s Experiment)
16.1.2 Cytokinins
16.1.3 Gibberellins
16. Plant and Animal Hormones 16.2 Human Endocrine glands

16.2.1  Pituitary Gland

16.2.2 Thyroid Gland
16.2.4 Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans)
16.2.5 Adrenal Gland
16.2.6 Reproductive Glands
16.2.7 Thymus Gland

 



17. Reproduction in Plants and Animals Introduction

17.3           Sexual Reproduction in Plants

17.3.1      Parts of a Typical Flower

17.3.2      Structure of the Ovule

17.4         Pollination

17.4.1    Types of Pollination

17.6         Fertilization in Plants

17.7         Sexual reproduction in human

17.7.1    Male reproductive organ – Structure of Testes

17.7.2. Female reproductive organ – Structure of Ovary

17.8       Gametogenesis

17.8.1  Structure of human Sperm

17.8.2  Structure of human Ovum

17.9    Menstrual cycle – Process of Ovulation

17.14    Personal Hygiene

17.14.1  Body Hygiene

17.14.2  Toilet Hygiene

17.14.3  Menstrual and napkin Hygiene



18. Genetics Introduction

18.1      Gregor Johann Mendel – Father of Genetics

18.2      Monohybrid cross-Inheritance of one gene

18.3      Dihybrid Cross- Inheritance of two genes and Law of Independent Assortment

18.4      Mendel’s laws

18.5      Chromosomes, DNA and genes

18.5.1  Structure of a Chromosome

18.5.4. Karyotype

18.6    Structure of DNA

18.6.1  Watson and Crick model of DNA

18.6.2  DNA Replication

18.6.3  Significance of DNA

18.7.       Sex Determination

18.7.1.  Sex Determination in Human

 19. Origin and Evolution of Life Introduction

19.1    Theories on origin of life

19.3       Theories of Evolution

19.3.1  Lamarckism

19.3.2  Darvinism or Theory of natural selection

19.6    Ethnobotany

 

20. Breeding and Biotechnology

Introduction

20.2    Green Revolution

20.2.4 Plant breeding for improved nutritional quality

20.3    Methods of Plant Breeding for Crop Improvement

20.3.1  Introduction of new varieties of plants

20.3.2  Selection

20.3.3  Polyploidy Breeding

20.3.4  Mutation Breeding

20.3.5  Hybradisation

20.4    Animal Breeding

20.4.1  Inbreeding

20.4.2  Outbreeding

20.4.3  Heterosis

20.6 Biotechnology in Medicine

 



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