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# SCIENCE SYLLABUS

## 2021-2022

 Unit Content 1. Laws of Motion Introduction Force and Motion Inertia Types of Inertia Examples of Inertia Linear Momentum Newton’s Laws of Motion Newton’s First Law Force Types of forces Resultant Force Newton’s Second Law of Motion Newton’s Third Law of Motion Rocket propulsion Gravitation Newton’s Universal law of gravitation Mass and Weight 2. Optics Introduction Properties of light Refraction of Light First Law of Refraction Second Law of Refraction Refraction of composite Light – Dispersion of Light Lenses Other Types of Lenses Images formed due to refraction through a convex and concave lens Refraction through a convex lens Applications of a Convex lens Refraction through a concave lens Applications of concave lenses Lens Formula Sign   Convention Human eye Defects in eye

 3. Thermal Physics Introduction Temperature Absolute scale (Kelvin scale) of temperature Thermal equilibrium Thermal Energy Characteristic features of heat energy transfer Other units of Heat energy Fundamental laws of gases Boyle’s law Charles’ law Avogadro’s law Gases Real gases Ideal gases 4. Electricity Introduction Electric Current Definition of Electric Current SI unit of Electric current Electric circuit Electrical components Electric potential and Potential difference Electric Potential Electric Potential Difference Volt Ohm’s law Resistance of a material Unit of Resistance Electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity Electrical resistivity Conductance and Conductivity Heating effect of current Joule’s Law of Heating Electric power Unit of electric power Consumption of electrical energy

 5. Acoustics Introduction Sound waves Longitudinal Waves Categories of Sound waves based on their frequencies Difference between the sound and light waves Reflection of sound Laws of reflection Reflection at the boundary of a denser medium Reflection at the boundary of a rarer medium Reflection of sound in plane and curved surfaces Echoes Conditions necessary for hearing echo Applications of echo 6. Nuclear  Physics Introduction Radioactivity Discovery of radioactivity Definition of radioactivity Natural Radioactivity Artificial Radioactivity (or) Induced Radioactivity Units of Radioactivity Alpha, beta and gamma rays Properties of Alpha, Beta and Gamma rays Radioactive displacement law Alpha decay Beta decay Gamma decay Uses of Radioactivity Agriculture MedicineIndustries Archaeological Research Safety measures Permitted range Preventive Measures

 7. Atoms and Molecules Introduction Atom and Atomic mass 7.1.1    Relative Atomic mass (REM) 7.2         Molecule and molecular mass 7.2.1    Classification of molecules 7.3    Difference between atoms and molecules 7.6    Avogadro hypothesis 7.7.   Applications of Avogadro’s Law 7.9   Solved problems (Problems related to the above mentioned topics only) Introduction 8.1    Modern periodic law 8.2    Modern periodic table 8.2.1 Features of periods 8.2.2 Features of groups 8.6.     Properties of metals 8. Periodic Classification of Elements 8.6.1      Physical properties 8.6.2      Chemical properties 8.10     Alloys 8.10.1 Amalgam 8.10.2 Method of making alloys 8.10.3 Types of alloys 8.11    Corrosion 8.11.2 Methods of preventing corrosion 9. Solutions Introduction 9.2       Components of solutions 9.3       Types of solutions 9.3.1  Based on the physical state of the solute and the solvent 9.3.2  Based on the type of solvent 9.3.3  Based on the amount of solute 9.3.4  Concentrated and dilute Solutions 9.6    Hydrated salts and water of crystallization

 10. Types of Chemical Reactions Introduction Types of Chemical reactions Classification based on the nature of rearrangements of atoms Classification based on the direction of reaction Ionic product of water pH scale pH calculations Problems 11. Carbon and its Compounds Introduction 11.1       General characteristics of organic compounds 11.2       Classification of organic compounds based on the pattern of carbon chain 11.3       Classes of organic compounds (Based on the kind of atoms 11.3.1  Hydrocarbons 11.3.2  Characteristics of hydrocarbons 11.3.3  Classification of organic compounds based on functional groups 11.4       Homologous series 11.4.1  Characteristics of homologous series 11.5       Nomenclature of organic compounds 11.5.1  Why do we need nomenclature? 11.5.2  Components of an IUPAC name 11.5.3  IUPAC rules for naming organic compounds 11.5.4  IUPAC nomenclature of hydrocarbons – Solved Examples 11.5.5  IUPAC nomenclature of other classes – Solved Examples 11.6       Ethanol 11.6.1  Manufacture of ethanol 11.6.2  Physical properties 11.6.3  Chemical properties 11.6.4  Uses of ethanol 11.8    Organic compounds in daily life
 12. Plant Anatomy and Plant Physiology Introduction 12.1      Tissues 12.2      Tissue system 12.2.1  Dermal or Epidermal tissue system 12.2.2    Ground tissue system 12.2.3    Vascular tissue system 12.3   Internal structure of dicot root (Bean) 12.5   Internal structure of dicot Stem (Sunflower) 12.7   Internal structure of dicot or dorsi-ventral leaf (Mango) 12.9       Plant Physiology 12.9.1  Plastids 12.9.2  Structure of chloroplast 12.9.3  Functions of chloroplast 12.9.4  Photosynthesis 12.9.5  Where does photosynthesis occur? 12.9.6  Photosynthetic pigments 12.9.7  Role of sunlight in photosynthesis 12.9.8    Factors affecting photosynthesis 12.11       Types of respiration 12.11.1  Aerobic respiration (Except Stages) 12.11.2  Anaerobic respiration 12.11.3  Respiratory quotient 14. Transportation in Plants and Circulation in Animals Introduction 14.1         Means of Transport in Plants 14.1.1    Diffusion 14.1.2    Active Transport 14.1.3    Osmosis 14.2         Root hair – water absorbing unit 14.3         Pathway of water absorbed by roots 14.4       Types of movement of water into the root cells 14.4.1  Apoplast Pathway 14.4.2  Symplast Pathway 14.5       Transpiration 14.5.1  Factors affecting transpiration, 14.6       Root pressure 14.7       Uptake of minerals 14.8       Translocation of Mineral Ions 14.9       Phloem Transport 14.10    Translocation of sugars 14.12 Blood 14.15 Structure of Human heart 14.15.2 Heart Beat 14.17 Blood Groups

 Introduction 16.1    Plant Hormones 16.1.1 Auxins (Except Went’s Experiment) 16.1.2 Cytokinins 16.1.3 Gibberellins 16. Plant and Animal Hormones 16.2 Human Endocrine glands 16.2.1  Pituitary Gland 16.2.2 Thyroid Gland 16.2.4 Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans) 16.2.5 Adrenal Gland 16.2.6 Reproductive Glands 16.2.7 Thymus Gland

 17. Reproduction in Plants and Animals Introduction 17.3           Sexual Reproduction in Plants 17.3.1      Parts of a Typical Flower 17.3.2      Structure of the Ovule 17.4         Pollination 17.4.1    Types of Pollination 17.6         Fertilization in Plants 17.7         Sexual reproduction in human 17.7.1    Male reproductive organ – Structure of Testes 17.7.2. Female reproductive organ – Structure of Ovary 17.8       Gametogenesis 17.8.1  Structure of human Sperm 17.8.2  Structure of human Ovum 17.9    Menstrual cycle – Process of Ovulation 17.14    Personal Hygiene 17.14.1  Body Hygiene 17.14.2  Toilet Hygiene 17.14.3  Menstrual and napkin Hygiene

 18. Genetics Introduction 18.1      Gregor Johann Mendel – Father of Genetics 18.2      Monohybrid cross-Inheritance of one gene 18.3      Dihybrid Cross- Inheritance of two genes and Law of Independent Assortment 18.4      Mendel’s laws 18.5      Chromosomes, DNA and genes 18.5.1  Structure of a Chromosome 18.5.4. Karyotype 18.6    Structure of DNA 18.6.1  Watson and Crick model of DNA 18.6.2  DNA Replication 18.6.3  Significance of DNA 18.7.       Sex Determination 18.7.1.  Sex Determination in Human 19. Origin and Evolution of Life Introduction 19.1    Theories on origin of life 19.3       Theories of Evolution 19.3.1  Lamarckism 19.3.2  Darvinism or Theory of natural selection 19.6    Ethnobotany 20. Breeding and Biotechnology Introduction 20.2    Green Revolution 20.2.4 Plant breeding for improved nutritional quality 20.3    Methods of Plant Breeding for Crop Improvement 20.3.1  Introduction of new varieties of plants 20.3.2  Selection 20.3.3  Polyploidy Breeding 20.3.4  Mutation Breeding 20.3.5  Hybradisation 20.4    Animal Breeding 20.4.1  Inbreeding 20.4.2  Outbreeding 20.4.3  Heterosis 20.6 Biotechnology in Medicine

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