NOTES ON CHEMISTRY(Thermodynamics) (NEET/JEE) 2022

Thermodynamics

Basic Terminology

⭐️System-

Part of the universe under investigation.

⭐️Open System-

A system which can exchange both energy and matter with its surroundings.

⭐️Closed System-

A system which permits passage of energy but not mass, across its boundary.

⭐️Isolated system-

A system which can neither exchange energy nor matter with its surrounding.

⭐️Surroundings-

Part of the universe other than system, which can interact with it.

⭐️Boundary-

Anything which separates system from surrounding.

⭐️State variables-

The variables which are required to be defined in order to define state of any system i.e. pressure, volume, mass, temperature, surface area, etc.

⭐️State Functions-

Property of system which depend only on the state of the system and not on the path. Example: Pressure, volume, temperature, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy etc.

⭐️Intensive properties-

Properties of a system which do not depend on mass of the system i.e. temperature, pressure, density, concentration,

⭐️Extensive properties-

Properties of a system which depend on mass of the system i.e. volume, energy, enthalpy, entropy etc.

⭐️Process-

Path along which state of a system changes.

⭐️Isothermal process-

Process which takes place at constant temperature

⭐️Isobaric process-

Process which takes place at constant pressure

⭐️Isochoric process-

Process which takes place at constant volume.

⭐️Adiabatic process-

Process during which transfer of heat cannot take place between system and surrounding.

⭐️Cyclic process-

Process in which system comes back to its initial state after undergoing series of changes.

⭐️Reversible process-

Process during which the system always departs infinitesimally from the state of equilibrium i.e. its direction can be reversed at any moment.

⭐️Irriversible Process-

This type of process is fast and gets completed in a single step. This process cannot be reversed. All the natural processes are of this type.

 

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