(Code No. 044)
Syllabus for Purpose of Examination 2021-22
CLASS -XII (2021-22)
The present curriculum provides the students with updated concepts along with extended exposure to contemporary areas of the subject. The curriculum also aims at emphasizing the underlying principles that are common to animals, plants and microorganisms as well as highlighting the relationship of Biology with other areas of knowledge. The format of the curriculum allows a simple, clear, sequential flow of concepts. It relates the study of biology to real life through the use of technology. It links the discoveries and innovations in biology to everyday life such as environment, industry, health and agriculture. The updated curriculum focuses on understanding and application of scientific principles while ensuring that ample opportunities and scope for learning and appreciating basic concepts continue to be available within its framework. The curriculum is expected to:
promote understanding of basic principles of Biology
encourage learning of emerging knowledge and its relevance to individual and society
promote rational/scientific attitude towards issues related to population, environment and
enhance awareness about environmental issues, problems and their appropriate solutions
create awareness amongst the learners about diversity in the living organisms and
developing respect for other living beings
appreciate that the most complex biological phenomena are built on essentially simple
It is expected that the students would get exposure to various branches of Biology in the
curriculum in a more contextual and systematic manner as they study its various units.
(Code No. 044)
CLASS XII (2021 -22)
TERM – II
Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis,
ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm) and their control; Basic
concepts of immunology – vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence – drug and alcohol
Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and
microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.
Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications
Chapter-11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).
Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Application
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production,
stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms – Bt crops; transgenic
animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.
Unit-X Ecology and Environment
Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche, population and ecological adaptations;
population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes –
growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Biodiversity – Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation;
hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves,
national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
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