The present curriculum provides the students with updated concepts along with extended exposure to contemporary areas of the subject. The curriculum also aims at emphasizing the underlying principles that are common to animals, plants and microorganisms as well as highlighting the relationship of Biology with other areas of knowledge. The format of the curriculum allows a simple, clear, sequential flow of concepts. It relates the study of biology to real life through the use of technology. It links the discoveries and innovations in biology to everyday life such as environment, industry, health and agriculture. The updated curriculum focuses on understanding and application of scientific principles while ensuring that ample opportunities and scope for learning and appreciating basic concepts continue to be available within its framework. The curriculum is expected to:

  • promote understanding of basic principles of Biology
  • encourage learning of emerging knowledge and its relevance to individual and society
  • promote rational/scientific attitude towards issues related to population, environment and development
  • enhance awareness about environmental issues, problems and their appropriate solutions
  • create awareness amongst the learners about diversity in the living organisms and develop respect for other living beings
  • appreciate that the most complex biological phenomena are built on essentially simple processes

It is expected that the students would get exposure to various branches of Biology in the curriculum in a more contextual and systematic manner as they study its various units.

Units Term – II Marks
III Cell: Structure and Function: Chapter – 10 05
IV Plant Physiology: Chapter – 13,14 and 15 12
V Human Physiology: Chapter –17, 18, 19, 20, 21 and 22 18

Total Theory (Term – II)


Unit-III Cell: Structure and Function

 Chapter-10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance

Unit-IV Plant Physiology


Chapter-13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Photosynthesis as a means of autotrophic nutrition; site of photosynthesis, pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea); photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; cyclic and non-cyclic photophosphorylation; chemiosmotic hypothesis; photorespiration; C3 and C4 pathways; factors affecting photosynthesis.


Chapter-14: Respiration in Plants

Exchange of gases; cellular respiration – glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); energy relations – number of ATP molecules generated; amphibolic pathways; respiratory quotient.

Chapter-15: Plant – Growth and Development

Growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA.


Unit-V Human Physiology


Chapter-17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases

Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans – exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration, respiratory volume; disorders related to respiration – asthma, emphysema, occupational respiratory disorders.

Chapter-18: Body Fluids and Circulation

Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; composition of lymph and its function; human circulatory system – Structure of human heart and blood vessels; cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG; double circulation; regulation of cardiac activity; disorders of circulatory system – hypertension, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, heart failure.

Chapter-19: Excretory Products and their Elimination

Modes of excretion – ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; human excretory system – structure and function; urine formation, osmoregulation; regulation of kidney function – renin – angiotensin, atrial natriuretic factor, ADH and diabetes insipidus; role of other organs in excretion; disorders – uremia, renal failure, renal calculi, nephritis; dialysis and artificial kidney, kidney transplant.

Chapter-20: Locomotion and Movement

Skeletal muscle, contractile proteins and muscle contraction.

Chapter-21: Neural Control and Coordination

Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans – central nervous system; peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; generation and conduction of nerve impulse.

Chapter-22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

Endocrine glands and hormones; human endocrine system – hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, gonads; mechanism of hormone action (elementary idea); role of hormones as messengers and regulators, hypo – and hyperactivity and related disorders; dwarfism, acromegaly, cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease.

Note: Diseases related to all the human physiological systems to be taught in brief.






Hope you found it useful,