TERM – 2

Social Science is a compulsory subject up to the secondary stage of school education. It is an integral component of general education because it helps the learners to understand the environment in its totality and develop a broader perspective and an empirical, reasonable and humane outlook. This is of crucial importance because it helps them grow into well-informed and responsible citizens with the necessary attributes and skills for being able to participate and contribute effectively in the process of development and nation-building. The Social Science curriculum draws its content mainly from History, Geography, Political Science and Economics. Some elements of Sociology and Commerce are also included. Together they provide a comprehensive view of society over space and time, and in
relation to each other. Each subject’s distinct methods of enquiry help the learners to understand society from different angles and form a holistic view.


The main objectives of this syllabus are to:
• develop an understanding of the processes of change and development-both in terms of time and space, through which human societies have evolved.
• make learners realise that the process of change is continuous and any event or phenomenon or issue cannot be viewed in isolation but in a wider context of time and space.
• develop an understanding of contemporary India with its historical perspective, of the basic framework of the goals and policies of national development in independent India, and of the process of change with appropriate connections to world development.
• deepen knowledge about and understanding of India’s freedom struggle and of the values and ideals that it represented, and to develop an appreciation of the contributions made by people of all sections and regions of the country.
• help learners understand and cherish the values enshrined in the Indian Constitution and to prepare them for their roles and responsibilities as effective citizens of a democratic society.
• deepen the knowledge and understanding of India’s environment in its totality, there interactive processes and effects on the future quality of people’s lives.
• facilitate the learners to understand and appreciate the diversity in the land and people of the country with its underlying unity.
• develop an appreciation of the richness and variety of India’s heritage-both natural and cultural and the need for its preservation.

• promote an understanding of the issues and challenges of contemporary India environmental, economic and social, as part of the development process.
• help pupils acquire knowledge, skills and understanding to face the challenges of +contemporary society as individuals and groups and learn the art of living a confident and stress-free life as well as participating effectively in the community.
• develop scientific temperament by promoting the spirit of enquiry and following a rational and objective approach in analysing and evaluating data and information as well as views and interpretations.
• develop academic and social skills such as critical thinking, communicating effectively both in visual and verbal forms – cooperating with others, taking initiatives and providing leadership in solving others’ problems+.
• develop qualities clustered around the personal, social, moral, national and spiritual values that make a person humane and socially effective.

CLASS X (2021-22)




Unit 1: India and the Contemporary World – II
Themes Learning Objectives
Section 1: Events and Processes


2.    Nationalism in India

·         The First World War, Khilafat and Non – Cooperation

·         Differing Strands within the Movement

·         Towards Civil Disobedience

·         The Sense of Collective Belonging





Section 2: Livelihoods, Economies and Societies


Note: Any one theme of the following. The theme selected should be assessed in the periodic test only and will not be evaluated in the board examination:


3.  The Making of a Global World


·         The Pre-modern world

·         The Nineteenth Century (1815-1914)

·         The Inter war Economy

·         Rebuilding a World Economy: The Post-War Era


4.  The Age of Industrialization


·         Before the Industrial Revolution

·         Hand Labour and Steam Power

·         Industrialization in the colonies

·         Factories Come Up

·         The Peculiarities of Industrial Growth

·         Market for Goods

·         Recognize the characteristics of Indian nationalism through a case study of Non-Cooperation     and     Civil Disobedience Movement.

·         Analyze the nature of the diverse social movements of the time.

·         Familiarize with the writings and ideals of different political groups and individuals.

·         Appreciate the ideas promoting Pan Indian belongingness.






·         Show that globalization has a long history and point to the shifts within the process.

·         Analyze the implication of globalization for local economies.

·         Discuss how globalization is experienced differently by different social groups.





·         Familiarize with the Pro- to-Industrial phase and Early – factory system.

·         Familiarize with the process of industrialization and its impact on labour class.

·         Enable them to understand industrialization in the colonies with reference to Textile industries.


Unit 2: Contemporary India – II
Themes Learning Objectives

5.  Minerals and Energy Resources

·         What is a mineral?

·         Mode of occurrence of Minerals

·         Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Minerals

·         Non-Metallic Minerals

·         Rock Minerals

·         Conservation of Minerals

·         Energy Resources

o Conventional        and                                 Non- Conventional

·         Conservation of Energy Resources

Note: The theoretical aspect of chapter ‘Minerals and Energy Resources’ to be assessed in the Periodic Tests only and will not be evaluated in Board Examination. However, the map items of this chapter as given in the Map List will be evaluated in Board Examination


6.  Manufacturing Industries

·         Importance of manufacturing

·         Contribution of Industry to National Economy

·         Industrial Location

·         Classification of Industries

·         Spatial distribution

·         Industrial pollution and environmental degradation

·         Control of Environmental Degradation


7.  Life Lines of National Economy

·         Transport – Roadways, Railways, Pipelines, Waterways, Airways

·         Communication

·         International Trade

·         Tourism as a Trade


·         Identify different types of minerals and energy resources and places of their availability

·         Feel the need for their judicious utilization












·         Bring out the importance of industries in the national economy as well as understand the regional disparities which resulted due to concentration of industries in some areas.

·         Discuss the need for a planned industrial development and debate over the role of government towards sustainable development.



·         Explain the importance of transport and communication in the ever-shrinking world.

·         Understand the role of trade and tourism in the economic development of a country.

Unit 3: Democratic Politics – II
Themes Learning Objectives
6. Political Parties  

·         Analyze party systems in democracies.


·         Why do we need Political Parties?

·         How many Parties should we have?

·         National Political Parties

·         State Parties

·         Challenges to Political Parties

·         How can Parties be reformed?


7.  Outcomes of Democracy

·         How do we assess democracy’s outcomes?

·         Accountable,         responsive                                 and legitimate government

·         Economic growth and development

·         Reduction of inequality and poverty

·         Accommodation of social diversity

·         Dignity and freedom of the citizens

·         Introduction to major political parties, challenges faced by them and reforms in the country.




·         Evaluate the functioning of democracies in comparison to alternative forms of governments.

·         Understand the causes for continuation of democracy in India.

·         Distinguish between sources of strengths and weaknesses of Indian democracy.

Unit 4: Economics
Themes Learning Objectives
3.  Money and Credit

·         Money as a medium of exchange

·         Modern forms of money

·         Loan activities of Banks

·         Two different credit situations

·         Terms of credit

·         Formal sector credit in India

·         Self Help Groups for the Poor


4.  Globalization and the Indian Economy

·         Production across countries

·         Interlinking        production         across countries

·         Foreign    Trade    and    integration   of markets

·         What is globalization?

·         Factors         that        have                      enabled Globalization

·         World Trade Organization

·         Impact of Globalization on India

·         The Struggle for a fair Globalization

 ·         Understand money as an economic concept.

·         Understand the role of financial institutions from the point of view of day- to- day life.




·         Explain the working of the Global Economic phenomenon.




Hope you found it useful,