GENETIC TERMINOLOGY (NEET/CBSE) 2022

GENETIC TERMINOLOGY

 

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🔻 Allele➖An alternative form of a gene

🔻 morph➖A silent gene

🔻 Angelman syndrome➖a rare genetically inherited form of mental retardation

🔻 Autosome➖Synonymous with somatic chromosomes

🔻 Chimera➖An exceptionally rare person composed of the cells derived from different zygotes

🔻 Chromosome➖Rod-shaped or thread-like structures located within the cell nucleus that carry genes encoded by DNA

 

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🔻 Cloned gene➖A recombinant DNA molecule along with the gene of interest

🔻 Consanguinity➖Having a common ancestor, i.e., blood relations

🔻 Crossing over➖The exchange of genetic material between a pair of homologous chromosomes

🔻 Cross-pollination➖Mating of two genetically different plants (but of the same species).

🔻 Dizygotic twins➖Twins produced from two separate ova, which are separately fertilized

🔻 Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)➖Composed of nucleic acids, DNA encodes the genes that facilitate genetic information to be passed to offspring.

🔻 Evolution➖Genetic change in a population of organisms over period of time

🔻 Gamete➖A reproductive sex cell (i.e. ovum or sperm)

🔻 Gene➖Units of inheritance typically occurring at specific locations (a chromosome)

🔻 Gene Pool➖All of the genes in all of the individuals in a breeding population

🔻 Gene Flow➖The transference of genes from one population to another

🔻 Genetic Drift➖Evolution, or change in gene pool frequencies, resulting from a random chance

🔻 Genetics➖Study of gene structure, action, and the patterns of inheritance of traits from parent to offspring

🔻 Genome➖The full genetic complement of a species

🔻 Genomic imprinting➖The epigenetic phenomenon by which certain genes are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner

 

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🔻 Genotype➖Genetic constitution of a cell (of an individual organism)

🔻 Gout➖Genetically inherited metabolic disorder (or a type of arthritis)

🔻 Hemophilia➖Genetic disorder (largely inherited), problem in blood clotting

🔻 Heterozygous➖A cell containing two different alleles of a gene

🔻 Huntington’s disease➖An inherited disorder that results into death of brain cells

🔻 Hybrid➖Combining the qualities of two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species (also known as crossbreed)

🔻 Mutation➖Change that occurs in DNA sequence

🔻 Pleiotropy➖When one gene influences two or more apparently unrelated phenotypic traits

🔻 Psoriasis➖ An inherited disease categorized by recurring thick, reddish patches on skin

🔻 Syntenic➖Genes occurring on the same chromosome

🔻 Zygote➖The fertilized egg is known as zygote

 

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